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Human Immunodeficiency Viruses (HIVs) are complex retroviruses that induce Acquired Immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in human beings. Two major types of HIV have been described; HIV-1, predominant world-wide and HIV-2, less virulent and prevalent in western Africa (Barre-Sinoussi et al. 1983; Gallo et al. 1984; Levy and Simabukuro 1985; Clavel et al. 1986). Both retroviruses are evolutionarily related to various Simian Immunodeficiency Viruses, nevertheless HIV-2 has not evolved directly from HIV-1, or vice versa (Hirsch et al. 1989; Guyader et al. 1986; Huet et al. 1990; Gao et al. 1999). There are 40 million people at present worldwide infected by Human Immunodeficiency Viruses -HIVs- (Prevalence map. 2006 Report on the global AIDS epidemic, UNAIDS, May 2006).

At the genome structural level, HIV-2 is 9.6 Kb in size including LTRs of 1.029 nt (pro-5´LTR-R/U5 of 299 nt and pro-3´LTR-U3/R of 730 nt). The internal region of this retrovirus displays a Primer Binding Site (PBS) complementary to a tRNALys3, Open Reading Frames (ORFs) for the gag, pol and env genes typical in retroviruses, tat and rev (both expanded in two exons) and vif, which are three accessory genes common in other lentiviruses, vpx, vpr and nef accessory genes specifical of primate lentiviruses, and a Polypurine Tract (PPT) adjacent to the 3´LTR (Clavel et al. 1986; Guyader et al. 1987).



Figure not to scale. If present, long terminal repeats (LTRs) have been highlighted in blue. Amino acid motifs noted with lines indicate the conserved residues in each protein domain, abbreviations below mean:

MA=matrix PR=protease DU or DUT=dUTPase TM=transmembrane TAV or IBMP=transactivator/viroplasmin or inclusion body matrix protein
CA=capsid RT=reverse transcriptase INT=Integrase CHR=chromodomain
NC=nucleocapsid RH=RNaseH SU=surface MOV=movement protein
PPT=polypurine tract PBS=primer binding site ATF=aphid transmission factor VAP=virion associated protein

Related literature

Genbank accession: M15390
Clade: Human lentiviruses
Cluster or genus: Lentivirus
Branch or class: Class 2
Family: Retroviridae
System: LTR retroelements
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Welcome to the Gypsy Database (GyDB) an open editable database about the evolutionary relationship of viruses, mobile genetic elements (MGEs) and the genomic repeats where we invite all authors to contribute with their knowledge to improve and expand the topics.
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Llorens, C., Futami, R., Covelli, L., Dominguez-Escriba, L., Viu, J.M., Tamarit, D., Aguilar-Rodriguez, J. Vicente-Ripolles, M., Fuster, G., Bernet, G.P., Maumus, F., Munoz-Pomer, A., Sempere, J.M., LaTorre, A., Moya, A. (2011) The Gypsy Database (GyDB) of Mobile Genetic Elements: Release 2.0 Nucleic Acids Research (NARESE) 39 (suppl 1): D70-D74 doi: 10.1093/nar/gkq1061

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