Element:SMRV-H

From The Gypsy Database

Description

Squirrel Monkey-like Retrovirus that occurs in humans (SMRV-H) is a D-type retrovirus characterized from human B lymphocytes (Oda et al. 1988). As this retrovirus is similar to SMRV-like retroviruses, it was named SMRVHLB (abbreviated as SMRV-H). This retrovirus belongs to the genus Betaretrovirus, which comprises of both B- and D-type retroviruses. Interestingly, D-type betaretroviruses present a common surface receptor also used by the baboon and cat endogenous C-type gammaretroviruses (BaEVM, RD114), cellular infection by any of them can interfere with other D-type members, and also with BaEVM and RD114 (Chatterjee and Hunter 1980; Sommerfelt and Weiss 1990). This evidence seems to be related with the high similarity displayed between env polyproteins encoded by gammaretroviruses and D-type betaretroviruses, indicating that betaretroviruses and gammaretroviruses may have been involved in an ancient recombinatorial event (Sonigo et al. 1986; Fauquet et al. 2005) or that they share a common ancestor (see env tree in section "phylogenies").

The genomic structure of SMRV-H is 8.8 Kb size including LTRs of 456 nt. The internal region displays a Primer Binding Site (PBS) complementary to a tRNALys1,2, Open Reading Frames (ORFs) for gag, dut/protease, pol, and env genes, and a Polypurine Tract (PPT), adjacent to the 3´LTR (Oda et al. 1988; Elder et al. 1992; Payne and Elder 2001). We also have found that SMRV-H also presents a putative accessory gene Orf-x that is common among many other betaretroviruses, and that was originally described in JSRV betaretroviruses (Bai et al. 1999; Rosati et al. 2000).

Structure

Smrv-h.png


Figure not to scale. If present, long terminal repeats (LTRs) have been highlighted in blue. Amino acid motifs noted with lines indicate the conserved residues in each protein domain, abbreviations below mean:

MA=matrix PR=protease DU or DUT=dUTPase TM=transmembrane TAV or IBMP=transactivator/viroplasmin or inclusion body matrix protein
CA=capsid RT=reverse transcriptase INT=Integrase CHR=chromodomain
NC=nucleocapsid RH=RNaseH SU=surface MOV=movement protein
PPT=polypurine tract PBS=primer binding site ATF=aphid transmission factor VAP=virion associated protein

Related literature

Genbank accession:M23385
Clade:Undetermined
Cluster or genus:Betaretrovirus
Branch or class:Class 2
Family:Retroviridae
System:LTR retroelements
Host:
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Homo sapiens
Image, Carlos Llorens,
Copyright, GyDB, Biotech Vana
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